JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)

The JL-2 SLBM was developed along with the DF-31 ICBM sharing a similar three-stage solid rocket design. The missile is launched from the new-generation Type 094 (NATO designation: Jin class) nuclear-powered missile submarine, and has an estimated range of 7,200 to 8,000 km. The missile will likely be equipped with penetration aids and decoys to decrease the effectiveness of missile defence systems.

The development of the JL-2 began in the early 1990s, with the first test launch taking place in 2002. Subsequent test launches were reported over the years and the latest test was reported to have taken place on 23 January 2015. The 2015 U.S. DoD report to the Congress on the PRC military capabilities commented that “(the JL-2) represents China’s first credible, sea-based nuclear deterrent. China will likely conduct its first SSBN nuclear deterrence patrol sometime in 2015. Four JIN-class SSBNs are currently operational, and up to five may enter service before China begins developing and fielding its next-generation SSBN, the Type 096, over the coming decade”.PLA designation…….Ju Lang-2 (JL-2)

NATO designation......CSS-NX-14
Range.................8,000 km
Payload...............?
Stages................3
Propellant............Solid
Guidance..............Inertial
Warhead...............Single
Deployment............Submarine-based
R&D...................1990s
FSF...................2002
IOC...................2014?

JL-1 / JL-1A (CSS-N-3)

The JL-1 (NATO designation: CS-N-3) is China’s first submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) system, and the first Chinese ballistic missile that burns solid propellant. Development of the missile began in the late 1960s, but the IOC was not achieved until 1988, when the missile was finally successfully launched from the Type 092 nuclear submarine from underwater. The JL-1 provided China with some limited but credible second strike capability, but its limited range (1,700 km) requires the submarine to leave Chinese waters in order to conduct a strike, which would significantly increase the possibility of being detected and intercepted by enemy anti-submarine forces.

The JL-1 is a two-stage, solid-propellant rocket with no control surface or stabilising fins. The missile completely relies on the swinging nozzles of its first stage engine to maintain its course of flight. On the head of the second-stage there are three mini rocket motors to help the stage separate from the warhead. The missile delivers a payload of a single 200 to 1,000 kT yield thermonuclear warhead that weighs 600 kg. The basic variant has a maximum range of 1,700 km, but the improved JL-1A reportedly has an increased range of 2,500 km. The missile has a cascade compensation inertial guidance with celestial (and possibly GPS) correction, giving a CEP of 600 to 700 m.

The JL-1 employs a ‘cold launch’ method, where the missile is first ejected from the submarine missile tube using fuel gas, with the first-stage engine igniting after the missile has emerged from the water. The missile is stored and transported inside a cylinder missile tube, which is loaded onto the submarine at its homeport before departure. A Type 092 submarine carries twelve missiles in its missile tubes behind the sail.

PLA designation.......Ju Lang-1 (JL-1)
NATO designation......CSS-N-3
Range.................1,700 to 2,500 km
Payload...............600 kg
Stages................2
Propellant............Solid
Guidance..............Inertial + celestial
Warhead...............Single, 200 to 1,000 kT yield
Deployment............Submarine-based
R&D...................1966
FSF...................1988
IOC...................1990s

125_135395_ac106d71d0f36b5

125_66_20b6a260b7ee081

Back to top